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SUBJECT : Major Ukrainian Emigre Political 

Organizations Worldwide, and in the 
United States 

DATE OF INFORMATION: 1971, with 1976 update. 

1. Introduction: At the beginning of the 1970's the 

Ukrainian political spectrum had many features of the prewar 
Ukrainian political groupings. The decisive political role 
was played by three factions of the OUN (Organization of Ukrainian 
Nationalists) : OUN/B (Bandera) , OUN/M (Melnyk) and OUNz 

(za kordonoin - abroad) . ' The first one was the largest but had 
few followers with an intellectual background. The centrist 
parties were represented by URDP (Ukrainian Revolutionary 
Democratic Party), UNDO (Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance) 

and UNDS (Ukrainian National-State Union) ; The left wing was 

composed of the USP (Ukrainian Socialist Party) , the right wing 
by the monarchist SHD (Union of Hetmanite Patriots) and by 
SVU (Alliance for the Liberation of Ukraine) . 

The OUN/M, OUNz, UNDO, UNDS and USP were members of 
the Ukrainska Natsionalna Rada (Ukrainian National Council) . 

The Executive Organ of the UN Rada was viewed by the adherents 
of the Rada as a government-in-exile of the Ukrainian .National 
Republic (UNR) which existed in Ukraine from 1917 to 1920. The 
Ukrainian word "rada" is the equivalent of the Russian "soviet” 
or council. 

in 1971: 

A. Major Ukrainian Emigre Political Organizations 

OUN/B * 


OUN/B - Orhani zatsiya Ukrainskykh Natsionalistiv - 
Banderivtsi (Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists - Bandera 
Group) has its headquarters in Munich, home of its president, 
Yaroslaw Stetsko, who is also president of the 
Headquarters of both organizations are located 
SOU f?C E S MEJH 00$ HX~£M? TT QN 3B2B 

RA:I:I WAR CR IMf S fl I S CLOSli RE AH r r d r t 
DATE 2007' - ‘SECRET 

ABN (see below) 
at Zeppelin Str 












Other prinqipal officers in Munich are Ivan Kashuba , 

Stepan Lenkavskyy, Stepan Mudryk; Osyp Tiushka in Innsbruck, 
Austria; Hryhory Drabat and Wasyl Oleskiv in London; 

Wolodymyr Kosyk and Borys Witoshynskyy in Paris; Roman Malashchuk 
and Wasyl Bezkhlibnyk in Toronto; Mykhaylo Shegedyn in Melbourne, 
Australia. OUN/B is affiliated with such civic organizations 
as Orhanizatsia Oborony Chotyriokh Svobid Ukrainy (OOChS'J - 
Organization for the Defense of Four Freedoms of Ukraine) in 
the USA or Liga Vyzvolennia Ukrainy (LVU - The League for 
Liberation of Ukraine) in Canada. The leaders of OUN/B and 
OOChSU in the USA are Stepan Halamay, Lev Futala, Ivan Vynnyk, 
Ivan Vovchuk. The leader of the OUN/B in Canada, R. Malashchuk, 
is president of the LVU. 

The OUN/B has following publications: Shlakh Peremohy 

(Path To Victory), a weekly, Munich, Zeppelin St. 67, 

Vyzvolnyy Shlakh (Liberation Path) , a monthly magazine published 
in London and the Ukrain ia n Review also in London at 
200 Liverpool Rd; Homin UTrainy fEcho from Ukraine), a weekly 
in Toronto, at 140 Bathurst Street; Visnyk (The herald) , a 
monthly in New York. 

OUN/B is the originator and a decisive factor of the 
Antybolshevy tskyy Blok Narodiv (ABN - Anti -Bolshevik Bloc of 
Nations) which includes representatives of various non-Russian 
emigre organizations. In the USA the activities of the ABN 
are conducted by Pryateli ABN (PABNA - Friends of the ABN in 
America). Spilka Ukrainskoyi Molodi (SUM - Association of 
Ukrainian Youth) with brances in several Western countries is 
also affiliated with the OUN/B. 


OUN/M - OUN - Melnykivtsi (Melnyk group) , has its 
headquarters in Paris, where its leader Oleh Shtul-Zhdanovych 
lives. Other principal officers of the OUN/M are: 

Arkadyy Zhukovskyy in Paris; Dmytro Andrievskyy, Yakiv Makovetskyy, 
Antin Melnyk, Ivan Zheguts in Munich; Hryhory Kostiuk in London; 
Yaroslaw Haywas in Newark, N.J., Zenon Horodyskyy in Trenton, N.J., 
Osyp Zinkewych in Baltimore, Zynowij Knysh in Toronto, 

Mykola Plawiuk in Ancaster, Ont., Marko Antonowych in Montreal, 
Bohdan Bociurkiw in Ottawa. The official publication of the 
OUN/M is Ukrainske Slovo (Ukrainian Word), Paris, 6 rue du Sabot. 







V ) 


The semi-official Novy y Shl akh (New Pathway) is published 
in Winnipeg', Canada , and Smo loskyp (Torch) in Baltimore, Md . 
Affiliated with the OUN/M are O'rhani zatsia Derzhavnoho Vidrodzenniya 
Ukrainy (ODWU - Organization for the Rebirth of Ukraine) in the 
USA, Ukrainske Natsionalne Obyednanhiya (UNO - Ukrainian 
National Alliance) in Canada, and Ukrainska Natsionalna Yednist 
(UNYe - Ukrainian National Union) in France. 


OUNz - OUN-Za kordonom (abroad), has its headquarters in 
Munich at Dachauerstr. 9. Principal officers are Bohdan Kordiuk 
(chairman), Daria Rebet, Ivan Chornij , Iryna Kozak in Munich; 
Swiatoslaw Vasylko in Nottingham, England, Volodymyr Vashkovych 
in Manchester, Oleksander Kowalysko in Bradford, Roman Ilnytzkyj, 
Anatol Kaminsky, Roman Borkowsky in New York, Vasyl Markus in 
Chicago, Bohdan Pidhaynyy, Karolo Mykytchuk in Toronto, Canada. 
The official monthly of the OUNz is Ukrainskyy Samostijnyk 
(Ukrainian Independent) , published in MuniclT. 

OUNz is affiliated with ZP/UHVR (see below) . 


ZP/UHVR - Zakordonne Predstavnytstvo Ukrains'koyi Holovnoyi 
Vyzvolnoyi Rady - (Foreign Representation of the Supreme 
Ukrainian Liberation Council) was established in Ukraine in 
1944 as the political. leadership of the UPA - Ukrainska Povstanska 
Armia (Ukrainian Insurgent Army) . 

The ZP/UHVR president is Rev. Ivan Hryniokh, residing in 
Munich. Other principal officers are Joseph Beran in Bern, 
Switzerland, Kyrylo Mytrowych in Paris, Sviatoslaw Vasylko in 
Notting ham, England, Bohdan Czajkiwskyj, Roman Ilnytzkyj, 

Anatol Kaminsky, Mykola Lebed, Myroslaw Prokoji in New York, 

Pawlo Turula in Chicago, Mykhaylo Marunchak in Winnipeg, 

Myroslaw Maleckyj in Toronto, Bohdan Halajczuk in Buenos Aires, 
Argentina, Myroslaw Boluch in Glenroy, Vic., Australia. ZP/UHVR 
published Suchasnist (Contemporary), a monthly in Munich. 

OUNz and ZP/UHVR are affiliated with two civic organizations: 
Obyednannia Prykhylnykov Vyzvolnoyi Borotby (OPWB - Association 
for Free Ukraine) in the USA and Ukrainsko-Kanadi j ske Towarystwo 
(Ukrainian-Canadian Society) in Canada, which have branches in 
various cities in both countries, as well as with Obyednannia 










Kolyshnykh Voyakiv UPA (Association of Former Members of the • 
Ukrainian insurgent Army - UPA) in the USA and Canada. In 
recent years many student groups and intellectuals have established 
close ties with ZP/UHVR and OUNz. 


URDP - Ukrainska Revolutsijno Demokratychna Partiya 
(Ukrainian Revolutionary Democratic Party) has its headquarters 
in Munich, W. Germany. It is headed by Wasyl Hryshko, who 
presently resides in Munich. Other leaders of the URDP are: 

Fedir HayenkO, Mykhaylo Romashko, Ivan Tarasiuk in Munich, 

Vitaly Bender in Reading, England and MykcOa Stepanenko in 
Washington, D.C. In 1970 a split occurred in the party and 
a faction led by Mykola Stepanenko organized another group 
under the same name, challenging Hryshko' s leadership. 

Stepanenko is Vice President of the UNR (Ukrainian National 
Republic) in exile. The majority of members have so far remained 
loyal to Hryshko, however Stepanenko enjoys support of 
Mykola Lewytsky, President of the UNR i n e xile. 

The URDP publishes Ukra i nsky Wisti (The Ukrainian News) , 
a weekly in Neu Ulm, W. Germany "and a monthly magazine 
Novi Dni (The New Days) in Toronto. 

URDP is affiliated with three civic organizations: 
Orhanizatsia Ukraintsiv Revolutsiyno-Demokratychnykh Perekonan 
(OUR11P - Organization of Ukrainians of Revolutionary Democratic 
Convictions) in the USA, Demokratychne Obyednannia Ukraintsiv 
Represovanykh Sovietamy (DOBRUS - Democratic Union of The 
Ukrainians Persecuted by the Soviets) in the USA and Canada, 
Orhanizatsia Ukrainskoyi Demokratychnoyi Molodi (ODUM - 
Organization of Ukrainian Democratic Youth) in the USA and 
Canada . 


UNDO - Ukrainske Natsionalno-Demokratychne Obyednannia 
(Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance) is composed of members 
of the older generation. It was set up in the Western Ukraine 
in the 1920's under Polish occupation. It ceased to exist at 
the beginning of the World War II and resumed its activities after 





{ ) 


the war. The chairman of the UNDO is Lubomyr Makarushka in 
Bonn. Other principal officers are: Mykhavlo Dobrianskyy in 

Munich, IVasyl Fedoronchuk in Rome, Dmytro Kuzyk in Trenton, N.J., 
Dmytrol Esterniuk in Rochester, N.Y., and Oleksander Yavorskyy 
in Toronto. Disagreements within ‘the party caused a split in 
1970. A faction led by Esterniuk and Fedoronchuk is supported in 
the UN Rada by Mykola Lewytskyy. The UNDO under L. Makarushka, 
the URDP under Hryshko and the OUNz are presently in opposition 
to the leadership of UN Rada and to Mykola Lewytskyy. 


USP - Ukrainska Sotsialistychna Partiya (Ukrainian Socialist 
Party) has no followers of the younger generation and is rent 
by internal disagreements. Its principal officers are: 

Stepan Ripeckyy (chairman) residing in Brooklyn, N.Y., 

Ivan Palyvoda in Bound Brook, N.J., Spyrydon Dowhal, Panas Fedenko, 
Ivan Luchyshyn in Munich, W. Germany. 


UNDS - Ukrainskyy Natsionalno-Derzhavnyy Soyuz (Ukrainian 
National State Union) lias its headquarters in Munich, 
Dachauerstr. 9. It was established after the second World War 
in West Germany by Ukrainian emigres of the middle or older 
generation from Eastern Ukraine. The principal officers of the 
UNDS are Mykola Liwytskyy (chairman), Petro Beley, Ivan Tarasiuk 
in Munich, Ivan Kramarenko and Petro Samoyliv in New York. They 
publish a weekly Meta (The Aim), which is also a semi-official 
spokesman of the UN Rada . Its editor is Myroslaw Styranka. 


SHD - Soyuz Hetmantsiv Derzhavnykiv (IJjiion of Hetmanite- 
Patriots) is a monarchist party headed by Miss Elysaveta 
Skoropadskyy , a daughter of the late Hetman Pavlo S-koropadskyy , 
who ruled in Ukraine from April to November 1918. Principal 
officers: Bohdan Koval and Dmytro Levchuk in New York, 

Myron Korolyshyn in Toronto. SHD publishes a weekly newspaper - 
Batkivshchyna (Fatherland) in Toronto. 






SVU - Spilka Vyzvolennyia Ukrainy (Alliance for the 
Liberation of Ukraine) is based in the USA with branches in 
Canada, Australia and West Germany.* Its members come primarily 
from Eastern Ukraine. Chairman: Valentyn Kowal, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Other officers: Taras Bulba-Borovets , Dmytro Yarko and 

Oleksa Kalynnyk. SVU's publication is Misia Ukrainy (The 
Mission of Ukraine), published in Brooklyn, N7YT The SVU is 
affiliated with The Americans to Free Captive Nations , Inc . , 

New York , N.Y. 

B. 1976 Update of Changes in Major Ukrainian 
Emigre Political Organizations: 

General Observations 

No major changes have taken place in the composition of 
the Ukrainian political parties since 1971 save those caused 
by the passing away of some of their leaders (simultaneously 
the rank-and-file membership of the .parties shrunk) . The 
decrease of the political activities of those groups can also 
be attributed to the splits that occurred in 1970 in the URDP 
and the UNDO whose stronger factions, as well as the OUNz 
left the UN Rada in 1970. These developments in the political 
life of the Ukrainians in the West have been compensated by the 
increase of the activities of younger generation of Ukr-ainiais 
primarily on behalf of the Ukrainian intellectuals persecuted 
in the USSR. 


While the OUN/B is still headed by Yaroslav Stetsko the 
day-to-day party work is directed by his wife Slava Stetsko and 
Stephan Malamay, presently editor-in-chief of Shlakh peremohy 
in Munich. Formal deputies of Stetsko are Roman ~Ma lashchuk from 
Toronto, Canada and Hryhoriy Drabat from Loncfon, England. An 
ultra right group of the OUN/B members opposing Y. Stetsko 
leadership publishes a quarterly Klych Nats iyi in Philadelphia, 
Pa. edited by Myroslaw Rudyy. The "most prominent members of the 
group are Borys IVitoshynskyy and Ivan Yarosh. 

S E C R E T 






Oleh Shtul -Zhdanovych , the chairman of the GUN has been ill 
for a long time. His duties are carried out by his first deputy 
Denys Kvitkowsky residing in Detroit, USA. Yaroslav Hay was was 
dropped from the OUN/M leadership in 1973 and is deprived of a 
powerbase in the party. 


Ukrainskyy Samostiynyk , the official monthly of the OUN/Z 
ceased its publFcatxon as of January 1, 1976. 


New members of the ZP/UHVR were elected in 1971, among 
them Roman Kupchinsky and Marta Skorupsky. Bohdan Ualaichuk 
and Evhen Wretsiona died in 1974 and 1975 respectively. 


URDP is presently headed by Mykhailo Voskobiynyk from 
Syracuse, N.Y. Vasyl Hryshko of Yonkers, N.Y. is honorary 
president. Mykola Stepanenko who heads another faction of the 
URDP resides in Mount Pleasant, Michigan. 


The stronger faction of the UNDO that broke away from the 
UN Rada in 1970 is headed by Oleksander Yaworskyy from Toronto, 
Ont. Pavlo Kashynsky is the head of another faction in Munich. 


USP is badly split. The party's chairman is Stepan Ripetskyy 
Spyrydon Dowhal died in 1975. 





*; i 



UNDS has Teofil Leontij as its president in Munich. The 
party's representative in the USA, Ivan Kramarenko died in 1974. 


Following the death of Elysaveta Skoropadska in 1975, 
the chairman of the SHD, a temporary rada (Council) is in charge 
of the party. 


The latest copy of the SVU publication appeared in 1975. 

2 . Major Ukrainian Political, Fraternal and Youth 
Organizations in the U.S. 

A. Introduction : It is estimated that there are 

approximately 2,000,000 Ukrainians and their descendants in the 
United States at this time, including approximately 10,000 
students. The largest Ukrainian emigre organization in the U.S. 
is the Ukrainian Congress Committee of America, Inc. with 
approximately 120,000 full dues-paying members, and an additional 
10,000 members who pay less and are not considered full members. 

It is a roof organization uniting some 54 Ukrainian national 
groups and is organized into 114 local branches. 

B. Organizations : The membership figures of these 

organizations are approximate, particularly those pertaining 
to the political organizations as many groups consider such 
statistics of a semi -confidential nature. 

( 1 ) Frat erna l Organizations : t 

The Ukrainian National Association (UNA) •- 88,000 

( includes 
20,000 young 

Ukrainian Workingmen's Association (UWA) 15,000 

The "Providence Association of Ukrainian 

Catholics 16,000 





The Ukrainian National Aid Association 9,000 


(2) Academic Organizations : 

The Shevchenko Scientific Society 2,000 

The Ukrainian Free Academy of Arts and 

Sciences . 400 

(3) Youth Organization s: 

Union of Ukrainian Youth (SUM) 6,000 

Plast (Scouts) 3,000 

Union of Ukrainian Students of America 

(SUSTA) 1,000 (240 

in NYC area) . 

Union of Democratic Ukrainian Youth (ODUM^. .800 

Ukrainian Students Association 200 in 

NYC area 

Union of Academic Youth (Zarevo) 200 

Union of Ukrainian Students Named After 
Mikhnovsky (TUSM) 100 

(4) Politi cal Organizations : 

UNRada (Government - in - Exile) U.S. Branch2,000 to 


Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists 

(OUN) also known as OUN/Melnyk , 1,000 

OUN/Bandera or OUN/Revolutionary (split ’» 

from OUN/Melnyk in 1940) 5,000 

OUN/Dviykari or Foreign Representation/ 

Ukrainian Supreme Liberation Council - 

ZP/UHVR. This group. split from OUN/Bandera 

in 1948 1,000 to 



4 i 





Ukrainian Revolutionary Democratic Party (URDP) 


Ukrainian Popular Democratic .Party 

(split from URDP) ' 100 

Ukrainian National Democratic Union (UNDO) 50 

Ukrainian Peasant Party , 70 to 100 

Union for the Liberation of the Ukraine (SVU) 50 

Organization for the Defense of the Four 
Freedoms in the Ukraine (ODFFU) - same group 
as the OUN/Bandera group 

Organization for the Rebirth of the Ukraine (ODWIJ) - 
same group as the OUN/Melnyk 

Association of Ukrainians in America (UAU) - 

split off from UCCA in 1968 -- few members ----- 

League for the Liberation of the Ukraine 200 

Union of Former Ukrainian Soldiers (?) 300 

Union of Hetman Rulers (?) 700 

Brotherhood of Furmer Military of the 

Ukrainian National Army 500 

Ukrainian National Union 100 

Union of Ukrainian Federalist Democrats -- 
(former Vlassovites) -- membership unascertained. 

3 . Recent Trends in Ukrainian Emigration 

In comparison with the situation in the 196’0's and the 
beginning of the 1970's when the Ukrainian political spectrum 
preserved many features of the prewar Ukrainian political groupings, 
the second part of the 1970's has brought about substantial 
changes caused primarily by the natural process of aging and/or 
the decrease of the political activity. During the last years, 





however, a new phenomenon has emerged in the Ukrainian politics. 

The wave of repressions in Ukraine in 1972 generated a great 
interest in the Ukrainian affairs of the younger generation of 
Ukrainians born and raised in the West. The civil rights movement 
and the rise of ethnic feelings in various groups in the USA 
has also stimulated similar development in the community of young 
Ukrainians . 

Of the historical Ukrainian political parties the decisive 
role is still played by three factions of the OUN (Organization 
of Ukrainian Nationalists) , i . e., OUN/B (Banderivtsi) , OUN/M 
(Melnykivtsi) and OUNz (zarokdonom - abroad) , the first one being 
the most numerous but with few followers with intellectual 
background. OUN/B is closely associated with SUM (Association 
of Ukrainian Youth) and such civic organizations as e.g. OOChSU 
in the USA (Organization for the Defense of Four Freedoms for 
Ukraine) . Similarly OUN/M has its adherents among the members 
of the UNO ^Ukrainian National Unity) in Canada. The members and 
followers of OUNz are active in the USA in OPVBl) (Association for 
Free Ukraine) . OUNz as well as OkVUPA (Association of Former 
Members of the UPA-Ukrainian Insurgent Army) recognize ZP/UHVR 
(Foreign Representation of the Supreme Ukrainian Liberation 
Council) as their representative political body. 

UNRada (Ukrainian National Rada and its Executive Organ, 
which is viewed by their adherents as a government - in-exi le , is 
composed of UNDS (Ukrainian National State Alliance) , USP 
(Ukrainian Socialist Party), OUN/M, as well as fractions of 
URDP (Ukrainian Revolutionary Democratic Party) , UNDO (Ukrainian 
National Democratic Union) and SP (Peasant Party). UNRada has 
been substantially weakened by internal frictions and splits. 

In 1973-74 an interparty alliance under the name of the 
Ukrainian Democratic Movement was jointly established by OUNz 
and fractions of URDP arid UNDO. The Movement (UDR) is in the 
opposition to UNRada. 

At the end of the WW II ZP/UHVR and OUN/B succeeded in 
establishing contacts with the Ukrainian underground and partisan 
movement in Ukraine. The destruction of the UPA and the underground 
network by the Soviets in the middle of the 1950's and the 
appearance of the intellectual ferment in the USSR in the middle 
of the 1960's generated a great interest in the Ukrainian emigre 
parties hoping for a national revival in the post-Stalin period. 




I > 

* i 



In the early 1960’s successful attempts were made by 
ZP/UHVR to establish contacts with several leaders of the new 
movement in Ukraine. One of the most remarkable products of these 
ties have been samvydav documents written by Ukrainian dissidents 
and smuggled out of Ukraine for publication abroad. Hundreds 
of documents (books, pamphlets, appeals, protests, individual and 
group letters) have been published since by Prolog and Suchasnist, 
beginning with Vasyl Symonenko's Diary (Suchasn ist ' , Jan. 1965), 

"On the Trial of Pohruzhalsky" ( Suchasnist , ~Feb . 1965), Ivan Dzyuba's 
Internationalis m of Russification? , 1968, Valentyn Moroz' "From 
Beria Reservation 71 ( Suchasnist March, April, May, June 1968) a.o. 

OUN/M followed the suit by publishing The Chornovil 
Papers in 1968 (Smoloskyp Publishers) , and subsequently 5 
volumes of Ukrainskyj Visnyk . Simultaneously those documents 
were obtained by ZP/UHVR. 

OUN/B has been far less successful in its endeavors to 
establish contacts with dissidents in Ukraine if judged by the 
number of samvydav documents obtained in Ukraine and distributed 
in the West. The same can be said of URDP which in 1968 came 
into possession of Yu.~ Braichevsky ' s essay V ozzyednannian" chiy 
pryyednannia? (Reunification or Annexation?}". 

The mass arrests of the Ukrainian dissidents in 1972 
have not stopped the samvydav and its flow to the West. The 
documents have now been primarily authored by persons detained in 
prisons and concentration camps. They include not only personal 
grievances but also deal with political, cultural and economic 
problems of the present-day Ukraine. They gain pretty wide circula- 
tion in Ukraine and become even more known to the Ukrainian 
population when smuggled to the West and subsequently beamed to 
Ukraine by Western radio stations (Radio Liberty, B.B.C., V.O.A. , 
Vatican Radio a.o.). Simultaneously, as pointed out above, those 
samvydav documents published by the Ukrainian press in the West 
stimulate great interest of the Ukrainian community in the events 
and developments in Ukraine (hundreds of such documents have been 
distributed by the Press Service of ZP/UHVRj . 


As previously indicated, the dissent in Ukraine and 
particularly the arrests of 1972 have been greatly responsible for 
the stepping-up of the Ukrainian youth activities in the West. At 
that time younger Ukrainians began organizing themselves into 
political and semi -political groupings whose main orientation was 




4 - 


■ ! 



defending political prisoners in the USSR and especially in 
Ukraine. These groupings which mainly sprang up in the USA 
and Canada had a* political orientation which was left of center. 

On the whole, these groups were organized into Committees for the 
Defense of Soviet Political Prisoners with branches in New York, 
Toronto, London and Paris. In Toronto, where the political 
profile was further left, some younger people organized themselves 
into a "publishing collective" called Meta which produced a non- 
periodical journal dealing with Ukrainian .and East European 

In the USA the Committee for the Defense of Soviet Political 
Prisoners, created at the beginning of 1972, has taken a less 
ideological role while agitating among left and liberal intelligent- 
sia on matters concerning dissent in Ukraine and in the USSR. 

This has been adapted by the other defense committees. The 
Committee for the Defense of Soviet Political Prisoners in the 
USA has also succeeded in creating a firm basis for a close 
cooperation with similar youth and civic organizations of other 
nationalities, primarily with Jews, Poles, Czechs, Lithuanians, 
Crimean Tatars, Armenians as well as with Russians. 

Activization of younger Ukrainians also influenced the 
Canadian Ukrainian Students Organization which in the last five 
years has become markedly more political in its outlook and 
involved in matters pertaining to the struggle in the USSR. The 
Toronto based Committee for the Defense of Valentyn Moroz played 
a very active role in 1973-74 in mobilizing Canadian public opinion 
around the question of persecution in the USSR. In the USA 
similar type committees were also active, but with less measure 
of success, if one were to judge by the articles which appeared 
in the American press.